The Ableist History of the Puzzle Piece Symbol for Autism

The puzzle piece is the most commonly recognized symbol for autism awareness. But many people are unaware of it’s ableist history.

On World Autism Awareness Day (April 2nd) , many neurotypical people show support and spread “autism awareness” for their autistic family members and friends by displaying the puzzle piece ribbon, wearing puzzle piece pins, and put puzzle piece stickers and decals on their car bumpers and windows. But one question is commonly forgotten; what do autistic people themselves think of the puzzle piece symbol?

While there are some autistic people who may identify with the puzzle piece, a large majority of autistic people don’t. Not only was the puzzle piece symbol used without input from the autistic community, but it has been used to stigmatize and dehumanize autistic people for decades, and continues to be used in this manner today. Despite overwhelming opposition for the puzzle piece symbol by autistic people, it remains the most commonly used and recognized symbol for autism.

The origin of the puzzle piece symbol for autism came from the United Kingdom organization, the National Autistic Society in 1963. It was created by Gerald Gasson, a board member for the National Autistic Society. He and the rest of the board believed that autistic people suffered from a “puzzling” condition, so they adopted a logo of a puzzle piece with a weeping child, displaying the notion that autism is a tragedy that children suffer from. This visualization of autism has led to decades of autistic people receiving unwanted treatments and therapies to treat a disease that they don’t have.

In 1999, the Autism Society of America created the puzzle piece ribbon as a symbol of autism awareness. The Autism Society stated that, “The puzzle piece pattern reflects the complexity of the autism spectrum. The different colors and shapes represent the diversity of the people and families living with the condition. The brightness of the ribbon signals hope – hope that through increased awareness of autism, and through early intervention and access to appropriate services/supports, people with autism will lead full lives able to interact with the world on their own terms.” But hope in this context, through “increased awareness of autism, and through early intervention,” usually means through increased research of cures and treatments for autism, and through early interventions, such as Applied Behavioral Analysis, that seek to “correct” autistic behaviors by forcing autistic people to mask their autism.

Today, the most recognized use of the puzzle piece is through the organization, Autism Speaks, who popularized the symbol. Since the organization was founded in 2005, they have used the puzzle piece logo to spread autism awareness. Even today, the puzzle piece logo of Autism Speaks can be seen on it’s website, in advertisements and public service announcements, on T-shirts, on pins NBA coaches wear in April, and in their Autism Walks. Autism Speaks said in a statement that, “The blue Autism Speaks puzzle piece has had a huge influence on raising awareness of autism around the world, which is why we believe it is still a worthy and effective logo. It represents the search for answers that will lead to greater understanding and acceptance of people on the autism spectrum, their diverse challenges, abilities and strengths.” The “search for answers” that Autism Speaks refers to is the search for cures and treatments. Autism Speaks has previously called autism a disease, and has said statements such as, “This disease has taken our children away. It’s time to get them back,” and have called autistic people “burdens” and “tragedies,” and has called autism itself an “epidemic.” In their“I am Autism” advertisement, Autism Speaks made statements such as that autism “robs children of their dreams,” and that autistic children “live behind a wall.” The puzzle piece is also blue, a color chosen because males receive more formal diagnoses of females, which implies that autism only appears in males or that males are “more autistic” than females are.

Autistic people reject the puzzle piece symbol for multiple reasons, but the main reasons are that it is infantilizing, it promotes the mentality that autistic people are incomplete or are missing puzzle pieces, and it treats autism as a disease that needs to be “treated” or “cured.” The primary colors of the autism awareness ribbon supports the misconception that autism is something that only appears in childhood, and autistic adults are largely ignored in the conversation about autism. The puzzle piece symbol carries mantras such as, “Until all the pieces fit,” or “Until the puzzle is complete,” which translates to until there is an answer, treatment, or cure for autism. The puzzle piece implies that autistic people have something wrong with them or “missing” in their brains or functioning.

In protest of the puzzle piece symbol being used for autism, autistic self-advocates have used sayings such as, “People, not puzzles,” “I am not a missing piece,” and a common saying in the disability community, “Nothing about us without us,” as the puzzle piece symbol was made without the involvement of autistic people. More autism-positive symbols, including the rainbow infinity loop for neurodiversity, was made by autistic advocates such as Judy Singer, who coined the neurodiversity term and promoted the social model of disability at a time when even less was publicly known about the needs of autistic people.

So, what should we do with the puzzle piece symbol? Some autistic people may choose to repurpose or reclaim the puzzle piece symbol to have a more positive meaning about the interconnectedness of the autistic community. A majority of autistic self-advocates choose to scrap the symbol altogether due to its extensive ableist history, and this is what I choose to do myself. No matter how I try to change the puzzle piece into something more positive for autism, I have to acknowledge that its history has been tainted by large autism organizations run by nondisabled, neurotypical people that claim to speak for autistic people. I think that no matter what, organizations should seek the opinions of autistic people before neurotypical autism “experts” on matters that affect them, such as the imagery and symbols they decide to use to represent an entire marginalized group of people.

If you want to use a more positive symbol for autism in April or any month of the year, use the symbol for autism acceptance rather than awareness, or that of neurodiversity (the rainbow infinity loop, or the gold infinity loop for autism acceptance). The color gold is another positive color for autism rather than blue. The color blue is used by Autism Speaks to promote the idea that autism is primarily for boys and is the color of their puzzle piece logo. The color gold is from the periodic element “Au” which is shorthand for autism, and some autistic people choose to go “gold” for autism instead of participating in Autism Speaks’ “Light it Up Blue” campaign. Other autistic people may choose the color red or participate in the social media campaign #RedInstead. This campaign was originated by autistic activist, Alanna Rose Whitney in 2015 with the hashtag #WalkInRed as an alternative to the “Light It Up Blue” Autism Speaks campaign, and was later rebranded to #RedInstead to be more inclusive of people with physical disabilities. Red continues to be a color to support acceptance for autistic individuals in April and throughout the year as an alternative to the blue color used by Autism Speaks. Some autistic people use crimson gold, combining the red and gold colors used for autism acceptance.

To support and properly represent autistic people, ask them first what language, symbols, and terminology they prefer before asking neurotypical people. Be aware of how symbols can support ableist notions, such as characterizing autism as something that needs to be treated or “cured.” And the next time you see a puzzle piece for autism, remember its ableist history to prevent it from being used in an ableist manner.

55 thoughts on “The Ableist History of the Puzzle Piece Symbol for Autism

      1. Ritlit: packing up and splitting? Cuz the puzzle tee shirt 👕 really works well with your favey bag?

        Translation: her support for autistics is lightbulbs and wearing blue. You mean you want her to actually LISTEN to autistic people? Oh no; a bridge too far. She’s unscrewing her blue lightbulbs posthaste, ripping up her blue t-shirt and taking her fierce advocacy to the next cause who will more appreciate her devout slacktivism.


        Liked by 1 person

    1. I feel people are over thinking the whole puzzle piece. In my opinion my boys have autism the puzzle piece represents the unknown reason(the missing piece to the puzzle)of why they are autistic, no one can tell us why, so it’s still unknown. Relax appreciate the fact this symbol brings awareness and hopefully some answers

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Thanks for just perfectly illustrating the central thesis of the article.

        I have two autistic children too, doesn’t make me an expert, nor is my opinion on how Auts are centered or represented equally weighted to their own voices.

        They’re not circus animals to be trained or rocks to be moved. They are sentient, sovereign human beings who have a RIGHT to tell us what matters to them, how they want to be represented, and how they see themselves centered. And we should LISTEN to them and justify their concerns and respond respectfully.

        It’s time we stop listening to the “experts,” sadists like BF Skinner, fools like Leo Kanner, and yes Autism Speaks that operates with the same mentality and hate speech directed at self advocates and OUR kids.

        Any organization that doesn’t center autistic voices, that supports aversive therapies, dangerous restraints and seclusions that are seriously hurting, traumatizing, and killing autistics and other neuro-diverse kids, shock boxes, abusive residential facilities, isn’t representing the true interest of any autistic person.

        It IS a big deal because she SAID it’s a big deal. She didn’t “overthink it.” She researched it, added how it makes self advocates feel, and wrote it down well so WE can understand it.

        Self advocates are our most precious resource to help us allistic parents understand our autistic kids, especially our kids with communication struggles. Perfect, thank you to the writer for being my 13 year old son’s voice and telling me how it feels to be an autistic navigating in a world that’s dismissive, cruel, and abusive to him.

        Let’s not feeling shame self-advocates. It’s time we LISTEN.

        Nothing about them without them.


      2. I see the puzzle piece as a symbol of how different we each can be and still fit together. Neuro-whatever! So I will be rocking the puzzle piece right along side you.

        Liked by 1 person

  1. Last year, at 77 years old, i was diagnosed with High Functioning Autism.

    . Keen to find out more about it, I scoured the internet for information,
    I came across an Autism site…..[but can’t remember what their name was]……and their logo was a YELLOW LADYBUG with black spots
    I had never seen a yellow one in my whole life, but a few days later, whilst gardening, I found one on my arm………It took me a minute, but then I realised…….

    MOST ladybugs are typically RED with black spots.

    OURS are yellow with black spots…………….” JUST A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT!!!”
    I’ve always loved yellow and call it my ‘happy colour’.

    Liked by 2 people

      1. Which state are in never heard of it n I have 5 on the spectrum including a girl
        So I’m interested to know more


  2. Great post.👏👏👏
    The History of symbology in the Autism universe should be no secret for anyone who’s involved in Autism Advocacy.

    By the way thanks for the honorable mention about Crimson and Gold colors.😌

    Louis Brunel AKA Crimson Âû

    Liked by 2 people

  3. I am an autistic female adult, and I do not consider myself as having a missing piece, nor am I an incomplete puzzle. I am autistic, which means I think differently to NTs, not wrong, just different. And as such I use the autistim infinity symbol, in fact I face it tattooed on my inner wrist x

    Liked by 1 person

  4. Thank you for writing this article. I appreciate that it is informative, but also respectful and non-judgement. I wrote a similar message last year. I will be sharing your article on my Facebook blog page, too.

    Liked by 1 person

  5. Really good piece! I know I’m being a picky academic, but I wish you’d cited a few of your sources, especially about the group in the UK, if for no other reason than people might wish to do additional research.

    Liked by 2 people

  6. Thank you for the insightful article. A suggestion: I would encourage changing the language to people-centered language, ie. people with autism, instead of autistic people.


    1. Thank you for your feedback and I’m glad you found this insightful! In all of my articles that I publish on my blog, “In the Loop About Neurodiversity,” I intentionally use identity-first language (hence my tag line “putting identity first”), as this is the language that the autism community overwhelmingly prefers, including myself as an autistic person. I prefer autistic person over “person with autism” because my autism is part of my identity and cannot be removed or separated from me, and is not something that should be stigmatized, but something to embrace and be proud of. Here is an article I wrote on identity first language and neurodiversity if you are interested in learning more about it:

      Liked by 2 people

  7. I think there are much more important topics to do with the lack of Canadian supports for those who have HF ASD falling off the support cliff… than if a puzzle piece is a good symbol or not for Autism. If we could put as much energy there as we do here… maybe this might be a more important topic.

    Liked by 1 person

  8. Completely agree with this article, except on the red or gold color.
    (Note that red has never been the opposite of blue.)
    It is, in part, to help show what is said in this article, that we have created the Autistan Day.
    Many autistic people love the flag of Autistan, or at least the disk of Autistan.

    Liked by 1 person

  9. I love this article, and will share it with my family.
    I am an outsider looking in, the parent of an autistic child. Noticing the inequalities, the emphasis on certain age groups and then a total drop in supports. It is rough.

    I have one puzzle piece item, a small keychain. Part because people recognize it, part as a conversation piece – but I am raising my daughter to know the only aspect of her that is a puzzle piece is that she is an important part of my life. Without her, my puzzle is incomplete. Without her, something is missing.

    If, eventually, she speaks, I will encourage her to tell the world “I am autistic”. It is WHO she is. It is ingrained in her just like her curiosity, bravery, and charm are characteristics that describe her. Not an ailment or flaw.

    Liked by 2 people

  10. I do agree with the article. However, the article was barely readable because of the ableist idea that everyone has a 20/20 sight and can comfortably read the low contrast black text on medium gray. Please do something about that style!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Hello and thank you for reading this article! I actually made my articles this way for accessibility, and particularly for people with light sensitivity like myself and I made it in blocks to break up the text and make it more readable. What do you think would be better/more accessible for people to read? I’d rather not do all completely white as the background. Maybe a lighter grey or a different color? I’ll experiment with different settings to see which would look the easiest to read. Thank you for your feedback.


  11. I really enjoyed reading this article the way it is; with clear paragraphs, grey background, contrasting the white page.
    Thank you so much.
    Of course, I also think it’s well written and useful.
    Cri, autistic, Italy

    Liked by 2 people

  12. I always thought the puzzle piece was about the uniqueness of each individual on the spectrum. That and the fact that the condition is puzzling because there is no known cure!

    I did enjoy reading the history though.

    Thank you for sharing!!

    Liked by 1 person

  13. Until I read this article I didn’t realize the puzzle piece was offensive to Autistic people. I never thought of it as being as a symbol that meant there was something wrong with Autistic people. I thought of it like every Autistic person is different but they are all part of the same disease. I don’t know if my wording is right. I understand now the negative connotation someone could assign to the puzzle piece. I find the rainbow and infinity symbol confusing, But this is just my opinion. I love the red and gold, I always picture a maze when I think of Autism. Because in my mind that is the best way to describe how the autism brain works. So if you like the idea a red and gold maze is an awesome symbol for Autism and I am a normal. But I am just throwing out a suggestion.

    Liked by 1 person

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